# CLASSIFICATION OF FLUIDS

## Why Does Lightning Hit a Tree When it is Not Even a Conductor?

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Ideal fluid
A fluid, which is incompressible and having no viscosity, is known as an ideal fluid. Ideal fluid is only an imaginary fluid as all the fluids, which exist, have some viscosity.

Real fluid
A fluid, which possesses viscosity, is known as real fluid. All the fluids, in actual practice, are real fluids.
Example: Water, Air etc.

Newtonian fluid

A real fluid, in which shear stress indirectly proportional to the rate of shear strain or velocity gradient, is known as a Newtonian fluid.
Example: Water, Benzine etc.
Non-Newtonian fluid

A real fluid, in which shear stress is not directly proportional to the rate of shear strain or velocity gradient, is known as a Non-Newtonian fluid.
Example : Plaster, Slurries, Pastes etc.

Ideal plastic fluid
A fluid, in which shear stress is more than the yield value and shear stress is proportional to the rate of shear strain or velocity gradient, is known as ideal plastic fluid.

Incompressible Fluid

A fluid, in which the density of fluid does not change which change in external force or pressure, is known as an incompressible fluid. All liquid are considered in this category.

Compressible fluid

A fluid, in which the density of fluid changes while a change in external force or pressure, is known as a compressible fluid. All gases are considered in this category.

Graphical representation of different fluids:

### Tabular representation of fluid types:

 Types of fluid Density Viscosity Ideal fluid Constant Zero Real fluid Variable Non zero Newtonian fluid Constant/ Variable T = u(du/dy) Non Newtonian fluid Constant/ Variable T ≠ u(du/dy) Incompressible fluid Constant Non zero/zero Compressible fluid Variable Non zero/zero

CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWS ON THE BASIS OF MACH NUMBER.
1. Incompressible ﬂow-M less than 0.3
2. Compressible subsonic ﬂow-M between 0.3 and 1
3. Transonic flow-M ranging from values less than 1 and more than 1
4. Supersonic ﬂow-M greater than 1 but less than 5
5. Hypersonic ﬂow – M greater than 5

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