Types of Electrical vehicles
There are four types of electric vehicles:
- Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
- Hybrid Electric Vehicle
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
- Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV):
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV): A BEV is referred to as an “all-electric” or “full-electric” car. BEVs are electric-only vehicles that receive power for their electric motors from internal battery packs. BEVs lack all ICE components.
BEVs often feature substantially greater capacity batteries and kilowatt-hour (kWh) outputs than equivalent hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric cars due to their exclusive reliance on electricity. BEVs often cost more than other types of EVs because of the additional battery technology.
To operate, BEVs need to be charged. This can be accomplished using a rapid charging station, a home charger, or energy recovered during regenerative braking.
MG ZS, TATA Nexon, TATA Tigor, Mahindra E20 plus, Hyundai Kona, and Mahindra Verito are a few examples.
- Hybrid Electric Vehicle
In order to minimise fuel consumption, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) combines an internal combustion engine (ICE) with an electric motor and battery pack.
HEVs do this by utilising an electric motor to propel the vehicle when an ICE would be particularly wasteful, such as while accelerating from a standstill. While it is more efficient to do so, such as when travelling at highway speeds, hybrids may also favour the ICE engine.
Due to the fact that owners may only refuel hybrid cars with conventional fuels, they operate most similarly to conventional ICE vehicles (usually petrol).
HEV technology automatically charges the battery through what’s known as ‘regenerative braking’ and activates the electric motor system when conditions are suitable, meaning drivers do not have to monitor charge or plug the cars into power outlets.
Example: Engine, Electric motor, Battery pack with controller & inverter, Fuel tank, Control module
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
Similar to a hybrid, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) combines an internal combustion engine (ICE) with an electric motor and battery pack. However, there are several key distinctions.
Due to the fact that the electric system performs the majority of the work when driving, PHEVs often feature bigger battery packs and more potent electric motors than hybrids. This implies that PHEVs may operate exclusively on electricity, turning off the ICE completely.
As the automobile will automatically recharge the battery and transition between ICE and electric power dependent on conditions, driving a plug-in hybrid is comparable to driving a hybrid. Drivers can choose to refuel PHEVs with both petrol and electricity, though.
A PHEV can run on just petrol if all battery charge is used up, and battery charge alone if all fuel is used up.
Example: Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, BMW 330e, Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid, Chevy Volt, Chrysler Pacifica, Ford C-Max Energi, Mercedes C350e, Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Mini Cooper SE Countryman, Ford Fusion Energi, Audi A3 E-Tron, BMW i8, BMW X5 xdrive40e, Fiat 500e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima, Volvo XC90 T8.
- 10 reasons: why EVs are the future of the automobile
Electric vehicle manufacturing is becoming increasingly popular, and its market share is expected to rise sharply. By 2022, India’s GDP is predicted to increase by 25%.
The best aspect is that, in addition to decreasing pollution, EVs can reduce oil imports by $60 billion by 2030. Currently, 82 percent of India’s oil needs are met by imports. Therefore, it is obvious how beneficial a reduction in import costs will be for the Indian economy.
1. There are no emissions:
Electric automobiles are being developed primarily because they do not emit pollution when driving. A battery-powered electric motor propels an electric vehicle. There is no burning of fuel. An exhaust system is absent from an electric car. It’s the best road transportation solution at a time when global CO2 emissions and air pollution must be drastically cut.
2. Access to city centers is unrestricted:
Aside from the fact that more cities are implementing LEZs, these zones are growing in size and strictness with time. You may travel anywhere and whenever you choose in low-emission zones with an electric automobile, both today and in the future.
3. Electricity is less expensive than gasoline:
Electricity is less expensive than gasoline and fuel. In low-emission zones now and in the future, you can drive an electric car anywhere and whenever you want. The most cost-effective solution is to charge at home.
4. Comfortable and quiet:
An electric motor makes a lot less noise than a combustion engine. Because of this, it’s easy to tell whether an electric car is silent. Additionally, unlike a combustion engine, an electric motor produces no vibrations or resonance. The serene drivetrain contributes to the tranquillity.
5. There’s no need to switch gears:
An electric automobile does not have a traditional gearbox, another key distinction from a car with a combustion engine. Since an automatic gearbox eliminates the need to change gears, an electric vehicle always operates similarly to a vehicle with one. Additionally, you won’t have to spend extra. Thanks to the silence of an electric motor, driving in city traffic or heavy traffic has never been more enjoyable.
6. Torque on the fly:
The incredibly high torque of an electric motor is a distinct feature. Superior to a standard internal combustion engine in terms of power. Furthermore, an electric motor responds rapidly to throttle motions and generates peak torque right from a standstill. Internal combustion engines have an unavoidable response time and can only generate maximum torque in a specific speed range. All of this assures enticing performance thanks to the smooth and powerful acceleration and a great deal of driving pleasure.
7. Extremely effective:
Currently, the most efficient combustion engines have an efficiency of around 40%. That means they only put 40% of the energy in the fuel into motion. Heat and friction account for the remaining 60%.
An electric motor has a 90 percent efficiency, which means it uses the battery’s energy far more efficiently. Furthermore, an electric car can swiftly recover kinetic energy because can transform electric motor into a generator in the blink of an eye.
8. Requires less maintenance:
Compared to combustion engine technology, the electric powertrain is far more straightforward. Because only a few sections need to be lubricated, it has fewer (spinning) parts and fluids. So, an electric vehicle requires less maintenance.
9. Generate your power:
Having your oil refinery in your garden to make your auto fuel is impossible. It’s hardly unexpected, though, that you can create your electricity. For instance, the roof of your house or business building may include solar panels that produce electricity. Lower your kilometre cost by charging your battery with this renewable energy.
10. Tax Benefit:
You may be able to save money on taxes by purchasing or leasing an EV. If an electric vehicle is registered in the name of your business, you can take advantage of the first-year depreciation allowance of 40% to reduce your income tax. The government is also in favour of your decision to purchase an electric vehicle and has already put up an EV policy that entitles you to up to Rs 1.5 lakh in additional advantages.