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1. Refrigerant

Refrigerant (commonly known as coolant or by its brand name Freon®) is a unique fluid that is crucial in cooling and freezing technologies. It transfers heat from within your building to the outdoors in a closed loop. You might think of the refrigerant as the courier or visitor. Refrigerant is used because it undergoes a phase change from liquid to gas at temperatures appropriate for the refrigeration cycle.

An air conditioner’s refrigerant flows through the copper coils and tubes that provide cooling. As the air in your house warms, it changes from a gas to a liquid condition. Once the refrigerant has extracted the heat from the inside air, it is transferred to the outside unit.

The refrigerant changes back to a gas and is sucked back into the system after its heat has been dispersed outdoors. Once the refrigerant has cooled down, an inside fan will blow air over the cold coils, distributing the cool air throughout the home. Each time you switch on your air conditioner, you must go through this process again.

2. Compressor

Because it operates with a fluid that can readily convert gas into a liquid, the compressor serves as the system’s primary propulsion mechanism. Its principal purpose is to change a gas that is under low pressure into a gas that is under high pressure and has a higher temperature. An electrified gas is produced as a byproduct of its operation, and this gas is used to close the gap regions that exist between individual molecules. The compressor is responsible for releasing this charged gas, which is also referred to as a refrigerant. The gas then moves into the condenser.

Here’s how it works:

  1. The refrigerant enters the compressor as a low-pressure, low-temperature gas.
  2. The compressor uses mechanical energy to increase the pressure of the refrigerant. This raises its temperature as well.
  3. The high-pressure, high-temperature refrigerant is then sent to the condenser coils.
  4. As the refrigerant passes through the condenser coils, it releases the heat it absorbed from the air inside the room and cools down.
  5. The cooled, high-pressure refrigerant is then sent to the expansion valve.
  6. The expansion valve reduces the pressure of the refrigerant, which causes it to rapidly cool and turn into a low-pressure, low-temperature liquid.
  7. The low-pressure, low-temperature refrigerant is then sent to the evaporator coils, where it absorbs heat from the air in the room and evaporates back into a gas.
  8. The cycle repeats as the refrigerant returns to the compressor and the process starts again.

3. Condenser Coil

The condenser coils are an important component of an air conditioning system. They are located outside the air conditioner and are responsible for releasing the heat absorbed by the refrigerant.

Here’s how they work:

The refrigerant enters the condenser coils as a high-pressure, high-temperature gas.

As the refrigerant passes through the coils, it releases the heat absorbed from the room air and cools down.

The cooled, high-pressure refrigerant is then sent to the expansion valve.

The expansion valve reduces the pressure of the refrigerant, which causes it to rapidly cool and turn into a low-pressure, low-temperature liquid.

The low-pressure, low-temperature refrigerant is then sent to the evaporator coils, where it absorbs heat from the air in the room and evaporates back into a gas.

The cycle repeats as the refrigerant returns to the compressor and the process starts again.

The condenser coils are an essential part of the air conditioning system because they help to dissipate the heat absorbed by the refrigerant. Without them, the system would not be able to release the heat effectively and the air conditioner would not function properly.

4. Expansion Valve

The expansion valve is a component of an air conditioning system that reduces the pressure of the refrigerant. It is located between the condenser coils and the evaporator coils.

Here’s how it works:

  1. The refrigerant enters the expansion valve as a high-pressure, high-temperature liquid.
  2. The expansion valve reduces the pressure of the refrigerant by restricting the flow of the refrigerant through a small opening. This causes the refrigerant to rapidly expand and cool down.
  3. The low-pressure, low-temperature refrigerant is then sent to the evaporator coils, where it absorbs heat from the air in the room and evaporates back into a gas.
  4. The cycle repeats as the refrigerant returns to the compressor and the process starts again.

The expansion valve is an important part of the air conditioning system because it helps to maintain the proper pressure and temperature of the refrigerant. Without it, the system would not be able to transfer heat effectively and the air conditioner would not function properly.

5. Evaporator Coil

The evaporator coils are an important component of an air conditioning system. They are located inside the air conditioner and are responsible for absorbing heat from the air in the room.

Here’s how they work:

  1. The refrigerant enters the evaporator coils as a low-pressure, low-temperature liquid.
  2. As the refrigerant passes through the coils, it absorbs heat from the air in the room and evaporates into a gas.
  3. The now-hot refrigerant gas is then sent to the compressor.
  4. The compressor increases the pressure of the refrigerant, which raises its temperature.
  5. The high-pressure, high-temperature refrigerant is then sent to the condenser coils.
  6. As the refrigerant passes through the condenser coils, it releases the heat it absorbed and cools down.
  7. The cooled, high-pressure refrigerant is then sent back to the expansion valve.
  8. The cycle repeats as the refrigerant returns to the evaporator coils and the process starts again.

The evaporator coils are an essential part of the air conditioning system because they help to absorb the heat from the air inside the room. Without them, the system would not be able to transfer heat effectively and the air conditioner would not function properly.

Functions of the air conditioning system:

Some of the most important roles that an AC unit plays in a contemporary home are listed below:

  • When properly installed and maintained, air conditioning may make any indoor environment suitable for human habitation.
  • Electrical equipment is cooled with a dedicated air conditioning system.
  • Humidity is regulated, with a range of 30–65% allowed, and a temperature range of 20–26 degrees Celsius.
  • The ambiance of a space can be altered by an air conditioner to make its occupants more comfortable and thus more productive.
  • Humidity, pressure, and temperature all contribute to the state of the air. There is no change in atmospheric pressure.
  • An HVAC system can warm, dry, cool, and add moisture to the air.
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